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2-Formylbenzenesulfonic acid in Zinc plating baths (APK #498)

Chemical additives are widely used in electroplating technology. This application shows the method of HPLC for determination of 2-formylbenzenesulfonic acid, which is used as additive in Zinc plating baths.


Acetylsalicyclic acid (APK #317)

Acetylsalicylic acid is very well-known as the drug Aspirin and is used to reduce pain and fever. It is also supplied under other brand names, such as Acylpyrin or Anopyrin. This application note shows the determination of impurity – salicyclic acid in the final product.

Additives in plastics (#338)

Polymer additives are important for stabilization in manufacturing process and stabilization over time. This application note shows the analysis of selected a process, UV and oxidation stabilizers widely used in polymers. The samples are extracted under reflux and after polymer precipitation, the additives are analyzed by HPLC. The results are essential for quality control.

Aflatoxins and ochratoxin by HPLC/FLD (APK #344)

Aflatoxin is a Group 1 carcinogen and is a product of mould. Ochratoxin is a mycotoxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus ochraceous and also by several species of Penicillium fungi. It is considered a potential carcinogen and has been known to cause kidney damage. All these mycotoxins are monitored worldwide and allowed concentration limits depend not only on the territory, but also on the food/feed matrix and are given by local administrations.

Aflatoxins by LC/MS (APK #343)

Aflatoxins are Group 1 carcinogens and are a natural product of mould. Mycotoxines are monitored worldwide and allowed concentration limits depend not only on the territory, but also on the food/feed matrix and are given by local administrations.

Alcaloids - Xanthine derivatives (APK #293)

Xanthine alkaloids occur naturally in various plants, such as cocoa, tea and coffee tree. They are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants. Xanthine alkaloids are monitored in food and drinks, e.g. in chocolate, cocoa powder, and energy drinks.

Amines (APK #458)

This application shows very nice peek symmetry and separation of aromatic amines in a Engelhardt mixture.

Amines and aromatics (APK #378)

Amines is a group of compounds, which is not easy to separate. The Novel ASTRA® DM phase with a polar embeded group and polar selector enables the separation of different amines and organic compounds with an amino-functional group. Peaks show an excellent symmetry under shown conditions.

Amitraz in Varidol (APK #346)

The Beekeeping Research Institute produces Amitraz solution in concentration 125 mg/l, which is used as an insecticide. ARION® Plus C18 shows much less contamination by final product, which includes a heavy matrix (aromatic naphtha fraction). Even after many analyses the chromatogram shows a peak with a high symmetry/tailing factor (1.019).

Ampicillin in human blood plasma (APK #409)

The accurate, simple, and selective HPLC/UV method has been established and validated for the determination of the antibiotic AMP as a suitable method in a cardiac surgery which does not have to be used only in cardiac surgery. The new ARION® Polar C18 column has been shown to effectively separate AMP in human blood plasma.

Antioxidants in polyolefin granulate (APK #374)

The antioxidants/UV stabilizers in the polyolefin granulate are analyzed by the standard addition method. These polymers are used as a catalytic media during crosslinking and further processing.

API glucuronide by LC/MS (APK #372)

This application shows high ASTRA® HPLC column stability in the pharmacokinetic assay. API is used in hypolipidemic therapy adjusting cholesterol levels in the human body.

Atorvastatin and photodegradation products (APK #406)

The HPLC method with UV and FLD detection has been optimized for the evaluation of photochemical degradation kinetics of atorvastatin in aqueous solutions under light conditions relevant to natural waters. Knowledge of the relative proportion of atorvastatin and its degradation products in water solution is needed for the further study of a potential toxic effect of atorvastatin itself and of the mixture of products of atorvastatin photochemical degradation in a water environment.

ATP Metabolites (APK #358)

This application note has been developed by the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, the group of synthesis of radiolabeled compounds. It shows separation of nucleosides, and nucleoside phosphates that are analysed in different applications, e.g. purine metabolism, biosynthesis, genetic code and clinical studies.

Avenanthramides (APK #326)

Avenanthramides (AVN) are phenolic alkaloids that are found mainly in oats. They are used in various diary supplements and dermatology products thanks to their anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activities.

Azithromycin (APK #329)

Azithromycin is an antibiotic used to treat many different types of infections. It belongs to a group called macrolides and has relatively broad antibacterial activity.


Beta Blockers (APK #371)

Beta Blockers are also known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents. They are used as a medication that reduces blood pressure.

Bitter acids in hop (APK #311)

Alpha-bitter acids are precursors of iso-α-bitter acids that are formed during the brewing process. They are present in hops (Humulus Lupulus L.) and their content depends on plant species and growing conditions. Iso-α-bitter acids give an appreciated bitter taste to the beer.


Caffeine metabolites (APK #401)

The HPLC/UV method was developed, optimized and validated for the analysis of caffeine and its selected metabolites (1-methyluric acid, theobromine, paraxanthine, theophylline) in urine. The method is also used for the quantification of caffeine in various food samples.

Calcium gluconate in injection solution (APK #474)

Calcium is found naturally in the body and is necessary for the normal function of muscles and nerves. It is needed to make the heart work properly and for blood to clot. In injections it is used in the form of calcium gluconate salt. The presented method shows the in-process control of calcium gluconate and stabylizer calcium saccharate in injection solution.

Cannabinoids (APK #310)

Cannabinoids have became more and more popular thanks to their health effects and the decriminalisation of their use. Analytical columns that can offer a suitable resolution play an important role. The challenge is to achieve the separation of the critical pair – CBD and CBG.

Cefazolin sodium (APK #453)

Cephalosporin antibiotic cefazolin sodium is widely used in medicine practice. ARION® Polar C18 column provides perfect resolution factor and peaks symmetry according to the pharmacopoeial method for determination of cefazolin sodium.

Ceramides (APK #484)

Ceramides are a family of fatty acids molecules. They play a role in skin’s barrier function and also promote brain development and maintain cell function. They are widely used as a moisturizer in various cosmetic and personal products. The application shows a sensitive LC/MS method for fast determination of diverse group of ceramides.

Citrates in Infusion Solution (APK #370)

Citrate is a chemical stabilizer used in infusion solutions. However, infusion of citrate is responsible for a decrease of arterial blood preessure. So, it is very important to keep optimum concentration in citrate infusion.

Clonazolam (APK #381)

Xanax is an benzodiazepine alprazolam-based anxiolitic. Counterfeit Xanax may contain caffeine as a main component, as well as clonazolam and flualprazolam, both of which have a strong sedative effect, are able to cause amnesia, and belong to the group of new psychoactive drugs.

Codeine phosphate (APK #466)

Control of active pharmaceutical ingredients should meet the strict requirements of pharmacopeial monographs. ARION® Plus C18 column provides perfect tailing
factor and resolution coefficient according to USP Monograph for codeine phosphate in comparison with competitive’s column.


Degradation assessment of diltiazem (APK #407)

The HPLC/UV method has been optimized for the degradation assessment of calcium channel blocker diltiazem. The photochemical degradation kinetics of this benzodiazepine structure is studied in aqueous solution.

Denatonium benzoate in ethanol (APK #294)

Denatonium benzoate is considered the most bitter compound by the whole world, which is why it is used as a denaturant of ethanol to prevent its misuse. This application shows fast isocratic elution to enhance productivity in the laboratory.

Determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel (APK #519)

The aromatic hydrocarbons content of diesel fuel is a factor that can affect exhaust emissions and fuel combustion characteristics, as measured by cetane number. This application shows fast and robust method for the determination of monoaromatic, di-aromatic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon contents in diesel fuels and petroleum distillates boiling in the range from 150 to 400 °C.

Dihydrotestosterone (APK #478)

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is an androgenic hormone synthesized primarily in prostate. DHT plays a primary role in the formation of the male genitalia during embryogenesis and it acts as the primary androgen in the prostate and hair follicles in adulthood. In medicine it is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels. ARION® Biphenyl column allows to determine DHT with sufficient tailing factor and resolution coefficient in the complex mixture of excipients in finished dosage form.

Dissolution profile pyridoxine and benfotiamine (APK #418)

The development of the HPLC method for vitamin mixtures in drug products is always challenging, taking into account the requirements of analytical methods in pharmaceutical production. Shown below is a chromatogram of dissolution profile of tablets that contain a mixture of pyridoxine hydrochloride and benfotiamine. ARION® Polar C18 column provides a perfect resolution factor and peaks symmetry in a long sequence of analysis.


Ergot alkaloids (APK #444)

Ergot alkaloids are mitotoxins produced by several species of fungies. Many different cereals may become contaminated with ergot alkaloids that cause poisoning in human and animals is known as ergotism. Despite on actions taken in agricultural practice for grain purification, control of the ergot alkaloids is still actual taking into account the low toxicological limits of these mitotoxins.


Flavonoids and their sulfated metabolites by HPLC method (APK #462)

Flavonoids have antioxidant and antiviral properties and are widely used as drugs and dietary supplements. Sulfation reaction of flavonoid compounds is part of mammalian metabolism. The presented method allows to separate parent compounds luteolin, quercetin, silychristin and their sulfated derivates in enzymatic sulfation reaction mixtures.

Food supplements (APK #473)

Food supplements are now trending worldwide. Concentrated sources of nutrients, vitamins and aminoacids are used to support the normal nutritional balance and healthy lifestyle. This application shows the simultaneous determination of cAMP, phenylalanine, tryptophan, FAD, malic and citric acids by accurate HPLC method.

Furans in transformer oil (APK #315)

Furans analysis together with oil soluble metal deactivator is an important analysis to monitor the degradation of winding insulation in the transformers. The presence of furans in transformer oils show the stage of the insulation degradation and a need of transformer replacement.


Herbicides by LC/MS (APK #357)

This application shows the separation of selected herbicides from the picolinic acid and phenoxyacetic acid family.

HMF in Infusion Solution (APK #369)

The levels of the degradation product, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), in Dextrose Injection is an important determination in pharmaceutical formulas and pharmacokinetic studies. ASTRA® DM shows better retention for polar compounds.

HMF in Syrup (APK #312)

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is formed from fructose or glucose by the heat treatment of food. HMF and its derivates/metabolites are genotoxic, mutagenic and may be carcinogenic, which is why HMF is analysed in various food matrices, such as in fruit and vegetable products, instant coffee and honey.

Hymecromone purity (APK #386)

Hymecromone is a drug used as a choleretic and antispasmodic medicine to treat bile.


Ibuprofen (APK #307)

Ibuprofen is a substance from a group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In order for the drug release to be targeted on the basis of pH change (gradual release for up to 30 days), binding to a polymeric carrier is used.

Ipidacrine (APK #303)

Ipidacrine is a drug inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase produced for the treatment of memory disorders caused by various diseases. This drug was first synthetized by the National Research Centre for Biologically Active Compounds (Russian Federation).


Lactoferrin in goat‘s milk (APK #405)

Lactoferrin (LT) is a glycoprotein, which is one of the group of transferrins. It is an iron-binding protein with a mass of 80 kDa. Lactoferrin has microbial properties against many microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi, including parasites). It is one of the non-specific components of the immune system and has anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.

Lactoferrin is widely represented in various animal fluids, mainly milk, saliva and tears. It is separated from bovine milk to produce this key ingredients of infant formulas. Lactoferrin is also used as a food supplement to support the natural immune system, gut microbiome and healthy skin.

Lactoferrin in milk (APK #400)

Lactoferrin (LT) is a glycoprotein, which is one of the group of transferrins. It is an iron-binding protein with a mass of 80 kDa. Lactoferrin has microbial properties against many microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi, including parasites). It is one of the non-specific components of the immune system and has anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.

Lactoferrin is widely represented in various animal fluids, mainly milk, saliva and tears. It is separated from bovine milk to produce this key ingredients of infant formulas. Lactoferrin is also used as a food supplement to support the natural immune system, gut microbiome and healthy skin.

Lutein in food supplements (APK #413)

Lutein and Zeaxanthin are carotenoids used in various dietary supplements. The task of this application was to develop a method that replaces the dichloromethane mobile phase with non-chlorinated solvents.


Methionine Hydroxy Analog MHA (APK #332)

MHA® feed supplement – in full name DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio) butanoic acid, is used for its antibacterial and antioxidant effects in the feed. MHA® is also an organic source of calcium.

Monosaccharides, disaccharides and sugar alcohol (APK #354)

The analysis of saccharides and sugar alcohol is one of the most common criteria in food and beverage analyses in the QC departments of manufacturers and the monitoring of authorities. This analysis of sugars and sugar alcohols is also used to detect food and beverage adulteration.


Oligonucleotides (APK #308)

The application shows the purification of nucleotides on ARION® column compared with our competitors‘
BDS and BDS-clone columns.

Oligonucleotides II (APK #348)

ARION® Polar C18 shows much better retention and resolution in GC 52% oligonucleotides analysis than competitive column developed for this particulate application.

Opioids and Tramadol and their metabolites by LC/MS (APK #349)

This application shows the LC/MS method for the most common opiates and their metabolites analyzed by toxicological labs.

Opioids APIs (APK #475)

Opioids can be used in medicine to treat pain and to manage withdrawal symptoms. ASTRA® Phenyl-Hexyl-HE column allows to separate the mixture of opioids with sufficient resolution coefficients in comparison to competitive’s column.

Organic acids (APK #355)

The identification and quantitative analysis of major organic acids in fruits and vegetables is considered very important for the food and beverage industry. Organic acids play a significant role thanks to their influence on flavour, stability and keeping quality. Organic acids are generated during the aerobic oxidation of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in most biological systems.

Organic acids (APK #439)

This application shows the determination of tartaric, malic, shikimic, lactic, citric and succinic acids. The quantity balance of these compounds influences on taste and flavor of wines and fruit juices. The ASTRA® column provides the simultaneous determination of organic acids with good peaks resolution at low limits of the concentrations.


Penicillin impurities (APK #314)

Penicillin is well know antibiotic found by Alexander Fleming. He isolated it from the mold Penicillium notatum. The application shows better separation of impurities in pharmaceutical production.

Phenoxymethylpenicillin impurities (APK #330)

This application shows Phenoxymethylpenicillin potasium impurities analysis in accordance with Ph. Eur. monograph.

Photosynthetic pigments (APK #483)

This application shows the method of analysis of the main photosynthetics pigments in extracts of Hibiscus leaves and extract from cells of the algae Emiliania huxleyi. ASTRA® C18-HE column allows to achieve good separation of the pigments, which is always challenging.

Polar pesticides by LC-MS/MS

Polar pesticides are commonly used in agriculture. This application shows the LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of highly polar pesticides paraquat, diquat, chlormequat and mepiquat.

Potassium trichloroammineplatinate (II) (APK #385)

Potassium trichloroammineplatinate(II) (KTCAP) is key intermediate in the synthesis of novel platinum anticancer drugs.

Preservatives in caffeinated beverages (APK #390)

Sodium and potassium salts of benzoic acid and sorbic acid are well-known food preservatives. The permitted amount in food is strictly regulated with the level depending on the food group. As an example, European regulation EC 1333/2008 sets the rules on food additives: definitions, conditions of use, labelling and procedures.

Preservatives in syrup (APK #356)

Sodium and potassium salts of benzoic acid and sorbic acid are well-known food preservatives. The permitted amount in food is strictly regulated with the level depending on the food group. As an example, European regulation EC 1333/2008 sets the rules on food additives: definitions, conditions of use, labelling and procedures.

Prostaglandins (APK #337)

Prostaglandin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) play a significant role in the bodies of humans and animals, and therefore are synthetised for use in ophthalmology, veterinary, and vascular treatment.

Purification of vitellogenin from bee haemolymph (APK #508)

Vitellogenins, glycolipophosphoproteins mostly known and well-characterized as precursors of yolk proteins, are involved in reproduction in the majority of oviparous animals. In insects, vitellogenins are typically synthesized in the fat body, from where they are transported via the haemolymph into growing oocytes. The honey bees are no exception: vitellogenin (mw about 200 kDa) is known to play crucial roles in bee reproduction, but its involvement appears to be multifunctional, since vitellogenin influences oxidative stress, nutrition, immunity, and honey bee longevity.

Pyrethroid insecticides (APK #517)

Flumetrin and fluvalinate are pyrethroid insecticides used to control mites in honeybee colonies. The treatment by these insecticides should be strictly controlled due to its toxic effects on health of honeybees. The described method
allows to determine flumetrin and fluvalinate in honey and related biological samples matrixes.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal tea (APK #350)

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids belong to a class of plant toxins, which are associated with diseases in human and animal bodies.


Quinolones (APK #410)

A Quinolone antibacterials are drugs used in veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections. The analysis of residual amounts of drugs in food is important for monitoring the quality control of products of animal origin. This application clearly shows the separation of 16 quinolones using the LC/MS technique.


Related substances of cefazolin sodium (APK #516)

Separation of impurities with close structure is always challenging in pharmaceutical industry due to the strict requirements to acceptance criteria of chromatographic method and low limits for impurities quantification. This application shows the method for determination of related substances of cefazolin sodium by the Ph. Eur. Monograph. ARION® Polar C18 column allows to separate all impurities according to the method.


Selected C18 phases comparison (APK #396)

This application shows a selectivity comparison of different C18 phases on QC mixture. It compares the hydrophobicity parameter of ARION® and ASTRA® HPLC columns with selected columns from other manufacturers.

Steroids (APK #488)

A quantitative determination of steroids is a valuable tool in a clinical practice in diagnostic of the steroid-related diseases. This method shows the simultanious analysis of wide panel of steroids by sensitive LC-MS/MS method.

Stevia glycosides (APK #387)

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a plant used for its sweet taste. It includes glycosides, which are used as sweeteners in the food industry.

Sweeteners and organic acids (APK#313)

This application shows the separation of three groups of compounds in parallel: non-nutritive sweeteners, organic acids and xanthine derivatives.

Synthetic Opioid in Cleaning Validation (APK #375)

This API is a synthetic opiod with around 100 times stronger effect than morphine. This application shows API monitoring during a validation of a cleaning process at trace levels.

Synthetic prostaglandin (APK #438)

Synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F2α (PGF 2α) is used in veterinary medicine as luteolytic agent for the induction of estrus and the treatment of reproductive disorders in cattle, swine, and horses. This application shows the determination of synthetic prostaglandin according to proprietary method. ASTRA® C18-HE column provide perfect peak symmetry in a long sequence of analysis.


Tamsulosin hydrochloride analysis (APK #292)

Tamsulosin hydrochloride is used to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate. This drug is an alpha-blocker that works by relaxing the muscles in the prostate and the bladder. Tamsulosin is sold under various trade names, e.g. Flomax, Urimax, Contiflo XL, Mesir LP, Prostanil MR, Tamsin, Fokusin, etc. The application note shows the chromatogram of the determination of the tamsulosin hydrochloride content according to the proprietary method.

Tramadol by LC/MS (APK #364)

Tramadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic belonging to the pharmacotherapeutic group of opioid analgesic. Tramadol is sometimes used in combination with Paracetamol to treat moderate to severe pain suffered by patients with various types of pain. This application has been developed to monitor right drug dosing.

Triazoles (APK #414)

Triazoles are used as intermediates for API production. This application shows the separation of all triazoles in one analysis.

Tween 80 in pharmaceuticals (APK #521)

Tween 80 is used to stabilize aqueous solutions with drugs and also as an emulsifier in the pharma industry. It is also used as an additive in vaccine production. Currently it is added to Covid-19 vaccines. Column CHROMSHELL® C18-XB provides a good tailing factor for Tween 80 and excellent separation from others components in comparison to competitor’s column.


Vitamin D in dry blood spot (APK #325)

Vitamin D is a group of steroids that have various effects on the human body and support the immune system. This application shows LC/MS/MS separation of the hydroxylated and non-hydroxylated forms of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. The amount of their hydroxylated forms determines the total vitamin D in a blood sample. Non-hydroxylated forms of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are important for food analysis. The LC/MS/MS chromatogram shows the separation of all the above mentioned analytes.

Vitamin E and provitamin A in food supplements (APK #392)

Beta-carotene is one of the group of carotenoids. It is a precursor of Vitamin A and plays a significant role as an antioxidant. Alpha-tocoferol is a type of Vitamin E. This applications shows the separation of both compounds in a sample of a food supplement.

Vitamins A and E (APK #383)

Fat-soluble vitamins are monitored not only in patient’s samples, but are also the subject of quality control in various food and dietary supplements.

Vitamins B (APK #384)

The group of water-soluble B vitamins is widely monitored in dietary supplements and in food. They play an important role in cell metabolism and the synthesis of red blood cells. This application shows the HPLC separation of B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12 vitamins.

Voriconazole and Posaconazole in blood plasma (APK #347)

Voriconazole and Posaconazole are antifungal drugs that are monitored in plasma and urine. Spiked samples based on a blood plasma from blood donors at transfusion station were used in this application note.


Wheat pigments (APK #344)

This application has been developed by ALGATECH, Institute of Microbiology of the Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic. Chlorophylls and carotenoids are essential cofactors for the oxygenic photosynthesis. As the content and stoichiometries of individual pigments are significantly varying in plant leaves under different environmental conditions, the quantification of pigments is important for the understanding of plant physiology, but also for the food-quality monitoring.


Сhemicals of emerging concern in river water (APK #469)

The chemical pollution cause huge damage to the aquatic environment.The simultaneous determination of pollutants with different physico-chemical properties, such as pesticides, metabolites, personal care products, plastic-related chemicals is always challenging. The application shows a sensitive LC/MS method for fast determination of diverse group of pollutants in river water.