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Chromatography

SPE Phases

SPE kolonky

 

This site encloses SPE phases overview includint their technical parameters. Further information about the products are available in the product catalogue.

 

 

 

 

 

Clean up SPE columns 

Reverse phase hydrophobic 

Phase Pore volume  (cm3/g) Pore Size (A) Surface Area (m2/g) Carbon Load (%) End Capping Feature
C2 Ethyl 0.77 60  500 6.6 YES/NO  
C4 n-Butyl  0.77 60 500 8.5 YES  
C8 Octyl 0.77 60 500 11.1 YES/NO  
C18 Octadecyl 0.77 60 500 21.7 YES/NO  
C30 Tricontyl 0.77 60 500 20.0 YES  
Cyclohexyl 0.77 60 500 11.6 YES/NO  
Phenyl 0.77 60 500 11.0 YES/NO  

Normal phase hydrophilic 

Phase Pore volume  (cm3/g) Pore Size (A) Surface Area (m2/g) Carbon Load (%)   Feature
Silica 0.77 60  500 N/A    
Diol 0.99 60 500 8.0    
Cyanopropyl 0.77 60 500 9.0    
Florisil 0.82 60 500 N/A    
Alumina, Acidic   60 500 N/A    
Alumina, Basic   60 500 N/A    
Alumina, Neutral   60 500 N/A    
Carbon       N/A   120/140 mesh

Ion Exchange - Anion Exchange

Phase Pore volume  (cm3/g) pKa Pore Size (A) Surface Area (m2/g) Carbon Load (%) Exchange (meq/g)
Aminopropyl (1 amine) 0.77 9.8 60 500 6.65 0.31
N-2 Aminoethyl (1/2 amine) 0.77 10.1; 10.9 60 500 11.1 0.32
Diethylamino (3 amine) 0.77 10.6 60 500 10.6 0.28
Quarternary Amine Chloride 0.77 Always charged 60 500 8.4 0.25
Quarternary Amine Hydroxide 0.77 Always charged 60 500 8.4 0.25
Quarternary Amine Acetate 0.77 Always charged 60 500 8.4 0.25
Quarternary Amine Formate 0.77 Always charged 60 500 8.4 0.25
Polyimine 0.77 Always charged     13.5 0.25

Ion Exchange - Cation Exchange

Phase Pore volume  (cm3/g) pKa Pore Size (A) Surface Area (m2/g) Carbon Load (%) Exchange (meq/g)
Carboxylic Acid 0.77 4.8 60 500 9.2 0.17
Propylsulfonic Acid 0.77 1 60 500 7.1 0.18
Benzenesulfonic Acid 0.77 Always charged 60 500 11.0 0.32
Benzenesulfonic Acid, High Load 0.77 Always charged 60 500 15.0 0.65
Triacetic Acid 0.77   60 500 7.61 Anion 0.17/Cation 0.06

Copolymeric phases

Phase Pore volume  (cm3/g) pKa Pore Size (A) Surface Area (m2/g) Carbon Load (%) Exchange (meq/g)
Aminopropyl + C8 0.77 9,8 60 500 12,3 0,163
Quarternary Amine + C8 0.77 Always charged 60 500 13,6 0,160
Carboxylic Acid + C8 0.77 4,8 60 500 2,5 0,105
Propylsulfonic Acid + C8 0.77 1 60 500 14,62 0,114
Benzenesulfonic Acid + C8 0,77 Always charged 60 500 12.3 0,072
Cyanopropyl + C8 0,77 N/A 60 500 14,6 0,163
Cyclohexyl + C8 0.77 N/A 60 500 N/A N/A

GC Phases

Capillary column

Stationary phases LION

On this page we provide an overview of the supplied stationary phases for gas chromatography (GC). Each is given details of its properties and the applications that are suitable for them. In the product catalog you can then choose a suitable quartz or metal capillary column for GC.

Fused silica capillary columns

 

Stationary phase Temperature range Composition USP Phase
LN-1 -60 to 370°C 100% dimethyl polysiloxane G2
LN-1 MS -60 to 370°C 100% dimethyl polysiloxane G2
LN-1 HT -60 to 430°C 100% dimethyl polysiloxane -
LN-5 -60 to 370°C 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl polysiloxane G27
LN-5 Sil MS -60 to 370°C 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl polysiloxane G27
LN-5 MS -60 to 350°C 5% phenyl - arylene - 95% dimethyl polysiloxane G27
LN-5 HT -60 to 430°C 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl polysiloxane -
LN-35 50 to 360°C 35% diphenyl/65% dimethyl polysiloxane G42
LN-35 HT -60 to 400°C 35% diphenyl/65% dimethyl polysiloxane G42
LN-17 40 to 340°C 50% diphenyl/50% dimethyl polysiloxane G3
LN-624 -20 to 260°C 6% cyanopropylphenyl/94% dimethyl polysiloxane G43
LN-FFAP 40 to 260°C Nitroterephthalic Acid Modified Polyethylene Glycol G35
LN-1701 -20 to 300°C 14% cyanopropylphenyl/86% dimethyl polysiloxane G46
LN-XLB 30 to 360°C Low polarity phases -
LN-XLB-HT 30 až 400°C Low polarity phases  
LN-WAX 40 to 260°C Polyethylene Glycol G16
LN-WAX Plus 20 to 260°C Polyethylene Glycol G16

Phenomenex stationary phases

Fused silica capillary columns
Stationary phase Temperature range Composition USP Phase
ZB-1 -60 to 370°C 100% dimethyl polysiloxane G2
ZB-1 MS -60 to 370°C 100% dimethyl polysiloxane G2
ZB-1 HT Inferno -60 to 430°C 100% dimethyl polysiloxane -
ZB-5 -60 to 370°C 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl polysiloxane G27
ZB-5 MSi -60 to 370°C 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl polysiloxane G27
ZB-5 MS -60 to 350°C 5% phenyl - arylene - 95% dimethyl polysiloxane G27
ZB-5 HT Inferno -60 to 430°C 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl polysiloxane -
ZB-35 50 to 360°C 35% diphenyl/65% dimethyl polysiloxane G42
ZB-35 HT Inferno -60 to 400°C 35% diphenyl/65% dimethyl polysiloxane G42
ZB-50 40 to 340°C 50% diphenyl/50% dimethyl polysiloxane G3
ZB-624 -20 to 260°C 6% cyanopropylphenyl/94% dimethyl polysiloxane G43
ZB-FFAP 40 to 260°C Nitroterephthalic Acid Modified Polyethylene Glycol G35
ZB-1701 -20 to300°C 14% cyanopropylphenyl/86% dimethyl polysiloxane G46
ZB-1701P -20 to300°C 14% cyanopropylphenyl/86% dimethyl polysiloxane G46
ZB-XLB 30 to 360°C Proprietary -
ZB-XLB-HT Inferno 30 to 400°C Proprietary -
ZB-WAX 40 to 260°C Polyethylene Glycol G16
ZB-WAX Plus 20 to 260°C Polyethylene Glycol G16
ZB-MR-1 -60 to 340°C Application-specific phase -
ZB-MR-2 -60 to 340°C Application-specific phase -
ZB-BAC-1&2   Application-specific phase -
ZB-Drug-1   Application-specific phase -
ZB-Bioethanol -60 to 360°C Application-specific phase -
Metal capillary columns
Stationary phase Temperature range Composition USP Phase
ZB-1XT SimDist -60 to 450°C Application-specific phase -

 


UHPLC

UHPLC PLATINblueUltra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography a milestone in the evolution of LC in that columns packed with <2µm particles, used with instrumentation capable of handling the resulting high back pressures, make possible extremely fast and efficient separations. UHPLC is a very powerful tool for today’s practicing chromatographer, as it can significantly increase the efficiency of a chromatographic separation. In addition, the wider range of usable flow rates makes high speed separations possible.

Effect on efficience

The lower the particle size, the higher column efficience is (see graph below). With particle size decrease the column back pressure increases significantly. This leads to ultra high pressure of longer LC columns. It means that we cannot use 1,9µm UHPLC column the same lenth like 5µm column (eg. 250 mm long column). In the end we have lower or similar column efficieny as we have with standard HPLC columns. The main benefit of the UHPLC columns is the analysis run time, not the efficiency.

Comparison of Particle Size Efficiences

If you need to increase efficiency, look at phase chemistry first. In this case look at stationary phase list.


UHPLC Phases

Raptor - RESTEK

Packing Material Particle Size (µm) Pore Size (Å) Effective Surface Area (m2/g) Carbon Load (%) pH Range
Raptor ARC-C18 1.8 90 125 proprietary 1.0-8.0
Raptor ARC-C18 2.7 90 130 proprietary 1.0-8.0
Raptor ARC-C18 5.0 90 100 proprietary 1.0-8.0
Raptor C18 1.8 90 125 proprietary 2.0-8.0
Raptor C18 2.7 90 130 proprietary 2.0-8.0
Raptor C18 5.0 90 100 proprietary 2.0-8.0
Raptor Biphenyl 1.8 90 125 proprietary 1.5-8.0
Raptor Biphenyl 2.7 90 130 proprietary 1.5-8.0
Raptor Biphenyl 5.0 90 100 proprietary 1.5-8.0
Raptor Fluorophenyl 1.8 90 125 proprietary 2.0-8.0
Raptor Fluorophenyl 2.7 90 130 proprietary 2.0-8.0
Raptor Fluorophenyl 5.0 90 100 proprietary 2.0-8.0
Raptor HILIC-Si 2.7 90 150 n/a 2.0-8.0
Raptor EtG/EtS 2.7 90 130 proprietary 2.0-8.0

Raptor maximum pressure: 1,034 bar (1.8 μm), 600 bar (2.7 μm); 400 bar (5 μm). For maximum lifetime recommended maximum pressure for 1.8 µm particles is 830 bar.

PINNACLE DB - RESTEK

Packing Material Particle Size (µm) Pore Size (Å) Surface Area (m2/g) Carbon Load (%) pH Range
Pinnacle DB C18 1.9 140 150 11 2.5-8.0
Pinnacle DB Aqueous C18 1.9 140 150 6 2.5-8.0
Pinnacle DB C8 1.9 140 150 6 2.5-8.0
Pinnacle DB CN 1.9 140 150 4 2.5-8.0
Pinnacle DB PFP 1.9 140 150 6 2.5-8.0
Pinnacle DB Biphenyl 1.9 140 150 8 2.5-8.0
Pinnacle DB IBD 1.9 140 150 proprietary 2.5-8.0
Pinnacle DB Silica 1.9 140 150 n/a 2.5-8.0

Troubleshooting

Many GC and LC problems can be avoided with routine preventive maintenance. If you are seeking the cause of the chromatography problem, go step by step. Never make more changes in your instrument at the same time, otherwise you will never find, what caused the problem.

Select your category of chromatography to read more about the troubleshooting: (GC troubleshooting is not available yet)

GC troubleshooting

GC troubleshooting

LC troubleshooting

LC troubleshooting


puriFlash

puriFlash® Flash Cartridges

Interchim developed new technique for flash chromatography - Ultra Performance Flash Purification (UPFP) using special flash cartridges. The flash cartridges are in the form of regular or irregular silica. UPFP enables to run purifications with high purity of the yield and less solvent use. 

puriFlash cartridges

Flash column selection

Flash column celection is available at this page.


dSPE (QuEChERS)

Resprep™ QuEChERS Products

QuEChERS Tubes For Extraction and Clean-Up of Pesticide Residues From Food Products

  • Fast, simple sample extraction and cleanup using dSPE.
  • Fourfold increases in sample throughput.
  • Fourfold decreases in material cost.
  • Convenient, ready to use centrifuge tubes with ultra pure, preweighed adsorbent mixes.

 

QuechersQuick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe, the QuEChERS ("catchers") method is based on work done and published by the US Department of Agriculture Eastern Regional Research Center in Wyndmoor, PA.(1) Researchers there were looking for a simple, effective, and inexpensive way to extract and clean pesticide residues from the many varied sample matrices with which they routinely worked. They had been using the Modified Luke Extraction Method, which is highly effective and rugged, but is both labor and glassware intensive, leading to a relatively high cost per sample. Solid phase extraction also had been effective, but the complex matrices the investigators were dealing with required multiple individual cartridges and packings to remove the many classes of interferences, adding costs and complexity to the process. A new method would have to remove sugars, lipids, organic acids, sterols, proteins, pigments and excess water, any of which often are present, but still be easy to use and inexpensive.

 

The researchers developed a simple two-step procedure. First, the homogenized samples are extracted and partitioned, using an organic solvent and salt solution. Then, the supernatant is further extracted and cleaned, using a dispersive SPE technique. Multiple adsorbents are placed in a centrifuge tube, along with the 1mL of organic solvent and the extracted residues partitioned from step 1. The contents are thoroughly mixed, then centrifuged, producing a clean extract ready for a variety of GC or HPLC analytical techniques.(2) Validation and proficiency data for the QuEChERS method are available for a wide variety of pesticides in several common food matrices at www.quechers.com.

 

Using the dispersive SPE approach, the quantity and type of adsorbents, as well as the pH and polarity of the solvent, can be easily adjusted for differing matrix interferences and "difficult" analytes. Results from this approach have been verified and modified at several USDA and Food and Drug Administration labs, and the method now is widely accepted for many types of pesticide residue samples.

 

Restek products make this approach even simpler. The centrifuge tube format, available in 2mL and 15mL sizes, contains magnesium sulfate (to partition water from organic solvent) and PSA* adsorbent (to remove sugars and fatty acids), with or without graphitized carbon (to remove pigments and sterols) or C18 packing (to remove nonpolar interferences). Custom products are available by quote request. If you are frustrated by the time and cost involved with your current approach to pesticide sample cleanup, we suggest you try this simple and economical new method.

We have products compliant with AOAC, Multi-miniresidue and Draft European methods.

Inforamtion about products is available here.

References:

  1. Anastassiades, M., S.J. Lehotay, D. Stajnbaher, F.J. Schenck, Fast and Easy Multiresidue Method Employing Acetonitrile Extraction/Partitioning and "Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction" for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Produce, J AOAC International, 2003, vol 86 no 22, pp 412-431.
  2. Schenck, F.J., SPE Cleanup and the Analysis of PPB Levels of Pesticides in Fruits and Vegetables. Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop, 2002

MEPS Phases

MEPS phases

 

SGE

Phase Particle size (µm) Pore Size (A)
Silica 45 60
C2 45 60
C8 45 60
C8+SCX* 45 60
C18 45 60

*C8+SCX BINS are labelled as M1.

The BINs can be used up to 40 - 100 extractions. General preparation time is 1 - 2 minutes. More information about MEPS products are available in the product catalogue.


Stationary phases

Chromatography phasesChromatography, either GC, HPLC, SPE, FLASH or preparative, uses many types of stationary phases. Here you wil find detailed information about stationary phases.

Stationary phases for analytical separation

Stationary phases for sample preparation

  • SPE
  • dSPE (QuEChERS)
  • IAC (Immunoaffinity Columns)
  • MEPS (Micro Extraction by Packed Sorbent)
  • FLASH
  • BULK (media for preparative chromatography)

 


Glossary

  • BEH = Bridged ethyl hybrid (HPLC particle)
  • DAC = dynamic axial compression
  • DAD = diod array detector
  • ECD = electron capture detector
  • EI = electron ionization
  • ELSD = evaporative light scattering detector
  • FIA = flow injection analysis
  • FID = flame ionization detector
  • FPD = flame photometric detector
  • GC = gas chromatography
  • GCTQ = gas chromatographs with Triple Stage Quadrupole
  • GCxGC = multidimensional gas chromatography
  • GPC = gel permeation chromatography
  • HETP = height equivalent of theoretical plate
  • HID = helium ionization detector
  • HILIC = hydrophobic interaction liquid chromatography
  • HPLC = high performance liquid chromatography
  • HPTLC = high performance thin layer chromatography
  • IC = ion chromatography
  • IHPLC = intermediate high performance liquid chromatography
  • LVI = large volume injection
  • MCSGP = Multicolumn countercurrent solvent gradient purification
  • MEPS = Micro Extraction by Packed Sorbent
  • MLC = micellar liquid chromatography
  • MS = mass spectrometry
  • NP = normal phase
  • NQAD = Nano Quantity Analyte Detector
  • ODS = octa decyl silicagel
  • PDD = pulsed discharged detector
  • PFPD = pulsed flame photometric detector
  • PID = photo ionization detector
  • PTV = programmable temperature vapourizer
  • RI = refractive index
  • RP = reversed phase
  • RRLC = rapid resolution liquid chromatography
  • SBSE = Stirring Bar Sorbent Extraction
  • SEC = size exclusion chromatography
  • SFC = supercritical fluid chromatography
  • SIM = single ion monitoring
  • SMB = simulated moving bed
  • SPE = solid phase extraction
  • SPME = solid phase micro extraction
  • TCD = thermal conductivity detector
  • TIC = total ion current
  • TLC = thin layer chromatography
  • TOF = MS analyzer "Time of Flight"
  • UFLC = ultra fast liquid chromatography
  • UPLC = ultra performance liquid chromatography
  • UHPLC = ultra high pressure liquid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography

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